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About Managers

Last updated 6 months ago

Introduction

Masonite uses an extremely powerful pattern commonly known as the Manager Pattern (also known as the Builder Pattern). Because Masonite uses classes with the XManager namespace, we will call it the Manager Pattern throughout this documentation.

Think of the Manager Pattern as attaching a Manager to a specific feature and responsible for managing a specific set of drivers. These managers are responsible for instantiating FeatureXDriver classes. For example, we attach a UploadManager to the upload feature. Now the UploadFeature will instantiate UploadXDriver classes.

For an actual example inside Masonite, there are currently two classes for the Upload feature: UploadDiskDriver and UploadS3Driver. Whenever we set the DRIVER in our config/storage.py file to s3, the UploadManager will use the UploadS3Driver to store our files.

This is extremely useful for extending functionality of the managers. If we need to upload to Google, we can just make a UploadGoogleDriver and put it inside the container. If we set our configuration DRIVER to google, our UploadManager will now use that class to store files.

Creating a Manager

Masonite obviously comes with several managers such as the UploadManager and the MailManager. Let's walk through how to create a new manager called the TaskManager.

Managers can live wherever they want but if you are developing a manager for the Masonite core package, they will be placed inside masonite/managers.

Let's create a new file: masonite/managers/TaskManager.py.

Great! Now all managers should inherit from the masonite.managers.Manager class. Our TaskManager should look something like:

from masonite.managers import Manager
class TaskManager(Manager):
pass

Awesome! Inheriting from the Manager class will give our manager almost all the methods it needs. The only thing we need now is to tell this manager how to create drivers. So to do this all we need are two attributes:

from masonite.managers import Manager
class TaskManager(Manager):
config = 'TaskConfig'
driver_prefix = 'Task'

Perfect. Managers are both extremely powerful and easy to create. That's it. That's our entire manager. The config attribute is the configuration file you want which via the key in the container and the driver_prefix is the drivers you want to manage. In this case it is the Task{X}Driver. This manager will manage all drivers in the container that conform to the namespaces of Task{0}Driver like TaskTodoDriver and TaskNoteDriver.

Notice that the config is TaskConfig and not task. This attribute is the binding name and not the config name. We can bind the task config into the container like so:

from config import task
container.bind('TaskConfig', task)

Which will be required to use our new task manager since it relies on the task configuration. You can do this inside the Service Provider that will ship with this manager. We will create a Service Provider later on but for now just know that that's where that configuration comes from.

Using Our Manager

We can use our manager simply by loading it into the container. We can do this by creating a Service Provider. Learn more about how to create a Service Provider in the Service Providers documentation. Let's show what a basic Service Provider might look like:

from masonite.provider import ServiceProvider
from masonite.drivers import TaskTodoDriver
from masonite.managers import TaskManager
from config import task
class TaskProvider(ServiceProvider):
wsgi = False
def register(self):
self.app.bind('TaskConfig', task)
self.app.bind('TaskTodoDriver', TaskTodoDriver)
self.app.bind('TaskManager', TaskManager(self.app))
def boot(self, manager: TaskManager):
self.app.bind('Task', manager.driver(task.DRIVER))

Great! We can put this Service Provider in our app/application.py file inside the PROVIDERS list. Once that is inside our providers list we can now use our new manager:

from masonite.managers import TaskManager
def show(self, manager: TaskManager):
manager.driver('todo').method_here()

Container Swapping

Although the above code works fine it might be more useful to add a container swap in our Service Provider so we can resolve an arbitrary shorthand class which will return our correct driver. We can do this in our boot method:

class Task:
pass
..
def boot(self, manager: TaskManager):
self.app.bind('Task', manager.driver(task.DRIVER))
self.app.swap(Task, manager.driver(task.DRIVER))

Now we can resolve this Task class which will return the correct driver since we specified a driver swap:

from somewhere import Task
def show(self, task: Task):
task.method_here()

Read about how to create drivers for your Manager class under the About Drivers documentation.