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Selenium Testing

Introduction

Selenium tests are browser tests. With normal unit testing you are usually testing sections of your code like JSON endpoints or seeing a header on a page.

With Selenium testing, you are able to test more advanced features that may require JS handling like what happens when a user clicks a button or submits or a form.

With selenium testing, you will build a bunch of actions for your tests and a browser will open and actually go step by step according to your instructions.

This package comes shipped with all the required selenium drivers so there is no need for any external selenium server installations.

Getting Started

Installation

First we will need to install the package:

$ pip install masonite-selenium

Creating The TestCase

This package extends the current testing framework so you will add the TestCase to your current unit tests.

Let's build a new TestCase and test the homepage that shows when Masonite is first installed:

$ craft test HomePage

This will generate a new test that looks like this:

from masonite.testing import TestCase
class TestHomePage(TestCase):
"""All tests by default will run inside of a database transaction."""
transactions = True
def setUp(self):
"""Anytime you override the setUp method you must call the setUp method
on the parent class like below.
"""
super().setUp()
def setUpFactories(self):
"""This runs when the test class first starts up.
This does not run before every test case. Use this method to
set your database up.
"""
pass

Building The TestCase

In order to build the selenium test we need to import the class and add it to our TestCase.

from masonite.testing import TestCase
from masonite.testing.selenium import SeleniumTestCase
class TestHomePage(TestCase, SeleniumTestCase):
"""All tests by default will run inside of a database transaction."""
transactions = True
def setUp(self):
"""Anytime you override the setUp method you must call the setUp method
on the parent class like below.
"""
super().setUp()

We now have all methods available to us to start building our selenium tests.

Using a Browser

First before we build our TestCase, we need to specify which browser we want. The current 2 options are: chrome and firefox.

You can specify which browser to use using the useBrowser() method inside the setUp() method.

from masonite.testing import TestCase
from masonite.testing.selenium import SeleniumTestCase
class TestHomePage(TestCase, SeleniumTestCase):
"""All tests by default will run inside of a database transaction."""
transactions = True
def setUp(self):
"""Anytime you override the setUp method you must call the setUp method
on the parent class like below.
"""
super().setUp()
self.useBrowser('chrome', version='74')
# self.useBrowser('firefox')

If you are using the chrome driver you can optionally specify which version to run.

Headless

You can optionally specify if you want to run your browsers in a headless state. This means that the browser will not actually open to run tests but will run in the background. This will not effect your tests but is just a preference and usually your tests will run faster.

self.useBrowser('chrome', version='74', headless=True)

Building The Test

Here is a basic example on building a test for the installed homepage:

def test_can_see_homepage(self):
(self.visit('/')
.assertSee('Masonite 2.2'))

we can then run the test by running:

$ python -m pytest

Method Chaining

You can chain all methods together to build up and mock user actions. An example test might look like this:

def test_can_login_to_pypi(self):
(self.visit('https://pypi.org/')
.clickLink('Log in')
.assertSee('Log in to PyPI')
.text('#username', 'josephmancuso')
.text('#password', 'secret')
.submit().assertCantSee('Your projects'))

Selectors

When finding a selector you can use a few symbols to help navigate the page

Take this form for example:

<form action="/submit">
<input id="username" type="text" name="username">
<input id="password" type="password" name="password">
<button type="submit">Submit</button>
</form>

Selecting by ID

You can select an ID by using the # symbol:

(self.visit('/form')
.text('#username', 'user')
.text('#password', 'secret')
.submit())

Selecting by Name

You can select by the name by simply passing in the name value. This will default to the name attribute:

(self.visit('/form')
.text('#username', 'user')
.text('#password', 'secret')
.submit())

Selecting by Class

(self.visit('/form')
.text('.username', 'user')
.text('.password', 'secret')
.submit())

Selecting by a Unique Attribute

The issue with selecting by a normal selector like an ID or a name is that these could change. This is why you are able to select with a unique attribute name.

You may change your form a bit to do something like this instead:

<form action="/submit">
<input selenium="username" type="text" name="username">
<input selenium="password" type="password" name="password">
<button type="submit">Submit</button>
</form>

You can then tell Masonite what the name of your unique attribute is:

from masonite.testing import TestCase
from masonite.testing.selenium import SeleniumTestCase
class TestHomePage(TestCase, SeleniumTestCase):
"""All tests by default will run inside of a database transaction."""
transactions = True
unique_attribute = 'selenium'
def setUp(self):
"""Anytime you override the setUp method you must call the setUp method
on the parent class like below.
"""
super().setUp()
self.useBrowser('chrome', version='74')
# self.useBrowser('firefox')

and finally you can select by that attribute using the @ symbol:

(self.visit('/form')
.text('@username', 'user')
.text('@password', 'secret')
.submit())

Available Methods

Below are the available methods you can use to build your tests.

visit

This method will navigate to a URL

self.visit('/')

If the URL does not start with http then Masonite will prepend the APP_URL environment variable to the front. If this is running inside your Masonite application, you can change this value in your .env file.

assertTitleIs

This method will assert that the title is a specific value

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.assertTitleIs('Welcome'))

assertTitleIsNot

Opposite of assertTitleIs.

assertUrlIs

This method will assert that the current URL is a specific value

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.assertUrlIs('https://www.python.org/'))

assertSee

Asserts that something is available on the page that the user can see

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.assertSee('Python'))

assertCanSee

Just an alias for assertSee.

assertCantSee

Opposite of assertCanSee. Used to assert that text is not on the page.

text

Types text into a text box.

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.text('#username', 'user123')
.text('#password', 'pass123'))

selectBox

You can choose an option in a select box by its value:

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.selectBox('#fruit', 'apple'))

check

This will check a checkbox

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.check('#checkbox'))

resize

Resizes the window based on a width and heigh parameter

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.resize(800, 600)) # width, height

mazimize

Maximizes the window

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.maximize())

minimize

Minimizes the window

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.minimize())

refresh

Refreshes the window

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.refresh())

back

Navigates backwards

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.back())

forward

Navigates forwards

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.forward())

Clicks a link on a page

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.link('#login'))

Alias for link.

submit

Submits the current form the last entered element is in

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.text('#username', 'user123')
.text('#password', 'pass123')
.submit())

You can also submit another form by entering a selector

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.text('#username', 'user123')
.text('#password', 'pass123')
.submit('#another-form'))

click

Clicks an element

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.click('#button'))

close

Closes the browser

(self.visit('https://www.python.org/')
.close())