Controllers are a vital part of Masonite and is mainly what differs it from other Python frameworks which all implement the MVC structure differently. Controllers are simply classes with methods. These methods take a
self parameter which is the normal self that Python methods require. Controller methods can be looked at as "function based views" if you are coming from Django as they are simply methods inside a class and work in similar ways.
Controllers have an added benefit over straight function based views as the developer has access to a full class they can manipulate however they want. In other words, controller methods may utilize class attributes, private methods and class constructors to break up and abstract logic. They provide a lot of flexibility.
Its very easy to create a controller with Masonite with the help of our
craft command tool. We can simply create a new file inside
app/http/controllers, name the class the same name as the file and then create a class with methods. We can also use the
craft controller command to do all of that for us which is:
$ craft controller Dashboard
When we run this command we now have a new class in
DashboardController. By convention, Masonite expects that all controllers have their own file since it’s an extremely easy way to keep track of all your classes since the class name is the same name as the file. This is very opionated but you can obviously put this class wherever you like.
Remember that Masonite will automatically append Controller to the end of all controllers. If you want to create the exact name of the controller then you can pass a
$ craft controller Dashboard -e
$ craft controller Dashboard --exact
This will create a
Dashboard controller located in
Resource controllers are controllers that have basic CRUD / resource style methods to them such as create, update, show, store etc. We can create a resource controller by running:
$ craft controller Dashboard -r
$ craft controller Dashboard --resource
this will create a controller that looks like:
""" A Module Description """class DashboardController:"""Class Docstring Description"""def show(self):passdef index(self):passdef create(self):passdef store(self):passdef edit(self):passdef update(self):passdef destroy(self):pass
Controller methods are very similar to function based views in a Django application. Our controller methods at a minimum should look like:
If you are new to Python, all controller methods must have the self parameter. The
self parameter is the normal python
self object which is just an instance of the current class as usual. Nothing special here.
All controller methods and constructors are resolved by the container so you may also retrieve additional objects from the container by specifying them as a parameter in the method:
from masonite.request import Request...def show(self, request: Request):print(request) # Grabbed the Request object from the container
or by specifying them in the constructor:
from masonite.request import Requestclass DashboardController:def __init__(self, request: Request):self.request = requestdef show(self):print(self.request) # Grabbed the Request object from the container
If you need a class in multiple controller methods then it is recommended to put it into the contructor in order to keep the controller DRY.
It’s important to note that unlike other frameworks, we do not have to specify our route parameters as parameters in our controller method. We can retrieve the parameters using the
request.param('key') class method.